Indeed, critics accuse the agreement`s focus on northern rebels alone of being able to incite other minority groups to use force to reclaim concessions. The opposition of southern painters to the agreement prevented progress in the implementation of the agreement. Since 2017, the government has been postponing the deadline for the referendum on constitutional reform, which is scheduled for the end of 2020. This reform aims to bring the Malian Constitution into line with the terms of the agreement, in particular through the creation of a Senate and regional assemblies whose presidents are elected by direct universal suffrage. Opposition to the deal, reinforced by widespread discontent with a state weakened by seven years of crisis and the recent controversial parliamentary elections, makes such a positive result this year unlikely. The sense of inclusion among the population of the north was limited – and their support for the agreement followed in the same way.15 In the case of northern Mali, the authorities also lacked “the means to impose their will on subordinate groups”, which made it difficult to implement a political solution16 compared to the different groups in Mali, the hierarchical nature of the FARC facilitated the negotiations. . . .